KERALA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY
AROMATIC AND MEDICINAL PLANTS RESEARCH STATION, ODAKKALI
GLOSSARY OF AROMATIC TERMS
Absolute: An ethanol extract of a concrete or a resinoid which generally contains the odoriferous components together with very small proportion of colouring matter and is free from any solvent used in the process.
Absolute Oils: Refers to the steam volatile part of an absolute.
Acid value: It is numerically equivalent to the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids present in 1g of the material.
Alcohol, Perfumery Grade: Rectified ethyl alcohol free from by-odours used in the manufacture of alcoholic extracts and perfumes.
Aldehydic Blend: Blends deriving their specific unique character through the superimposition of certain aldehydes.
Amber Note: A heavy, full-bodied warm powdery note.
Animal Note: Odours or notes with a sensuous character.
Aromatic Water: Aqueous odoriferous condensate of hydrodistilled and/or steamdistilled material of vegetable origin containing fully dispersed or partially floating essential oil.
Attar (Indian): A perfume concentrate characteristic of a single flower or a mixture of flowers and/or other materials of plant or animal origin with sandal wood oil as the base.
Balsam: An exudate from plants which flows either naturally or artificially through incision having characteristic odour associated with benzoic or cinnamic acid esters.
Blend: Harmonious combination of odoriferous materials.
Blend, Aldehydic: Blends deriving their specific unique character through the superimposition of certain aldehydes.
Blend, Cologne: Any harmonious combination of fragrances, the main characteristics of which are derived from citrus oils.
Blend, Oriental: A blend with heavy, full-bodied note.
Blend, Spicy: Any fragrance combination having carnation characteristics.
Blend, Woody: Any fragrance dominated by a woody character.
Boiling Range: It is the range of temperature within which a specified percentage of the material distils.
Bouquet: Generally a harmonious combination of two or more floral notes.
By-Note: A temporary or permanent odour effect additional to the main pattern of odour associated with the material.
Carbonyl Value: It is numerically equivalent to the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide, that is, equivalent to the amount of hydroxylamine required to oxidise the carbonyl compounds present in 1 g of the material.
Cell: A unit of the plant tissue.
Cellular: Composed of cells.
Chypre: A mossy woody fragrance, complex with a characteristic sweet citrus top note, frequently encompassing some floral tones.
Citrus: Odours reminiscent of citrus fruits, such as orange, lemon, bergamot, grapefruit etc.
Cloying: An odour that satiates the senses beyond a natural desire.
Cologne: It is the strongest realization of a particular fragrance in aqueous alcohol.
Cologne Blend: Any harmonious combination of fragrances, the main characteristics of which are derived from citrus oils.
Concentrated Perfume: A nonalcoholic concentrated perfume blend.
Concentration: Method of separation of undesirable substance to improve the quality of the material.
Concrete: An extract of fresh plant parts by the use of a hydrocarbon solvent. It is rich in hydrocarbon soluble materials and devoid of water-soluble components. It is generally a waxy semisolid dark coloured material free from the original solvent
Condensate: Vapours that have been condensed.
Condenser: Part of the distillation apparatus where the hot vapours are cooled and condensed for recovery.
Congealing Point: It is the maximum constant temperature at which a liquefied solid resolidifies.
Deterpenized Oil: Natural essential oils which are free from terpenes and/or sesquiterpenes.
Diffusion: The ability of a fragrance to radiate and permeate the environment.
Distillation: A process of evaporation and recondensation used for purifying liquids.
Distillation Range: It is the range of temperature within which a specified percentage of the material distils.
Distillation, Dry: Distillation carried out completely in the absence of steam or water.
Distillation, Hydro: Distillation of a substance carried out in direct contact with boiling water.
Distillation, Steam: Distillation of a substance by bubbling steam through it.
Distillation, Vacuum: Distillation of a substance under reduced pressure.
Distillation, Water: Distillation of a substance carried out in direct contact with boiling water.
Dry distillation: distillation carried out completely in the absence of steam or water.
Dry Out: Final phase of the main fragrance.
Enfleurage: Process of extracting fragrance of fresh flowers by intimate contact with mixture of purified fats preferably at low temperatures.
Essential Oil: It is a volatile perfumery material derived from a single source of vegetable or animal origin by a process, such as hydrodistillation, steam distillation, dry distillation or expression.
Essential Oil, Synthetic: It is a composition generally consisting of natural essential oils, aromatic chemicals, resinoids, concretes, absolutes, etc., but excluding animal or vegetable non: essential oils and not having a nonvolatile residue in excess of 10 percent by mass. It is so composed that it bears a close resemblance primarily in odour to a naturally occurring essential oil.
Ester Value: It is numerically equivalent to the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the acids liberated by the hydrolysis of the esters present in 1 g of the material. It represents the difference between the saponification value and the acid value of the material.
Ester value After Acetylation: It is numerically equivalent to the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the acids liberated by the hydrolysis of 1 g of the acetylated material.
Evaporation Residue: Represents the percentage of a perfumery material which is not volatile when heated on a steambath under the specified conditions.
Expression: The process of extracting essential oil under pressure.
Extract: Concentrated produce obtained by treating a natural perfumery material with a solvent which is subsequently evaporated.
Extraction: The process of isolating essential oil with the help of a volatile solvent.
Extrait: A French word, now universally used in perfumery, meaning an alcoholic extract of odourous parts of a pommade.
Fixative: A substance which is compatible with and stabilizes a perfume composition by retarding the rate of evaporation of its volatile constituents.
Flavour: Refers to that characteristic quality of a material as affects the taste or perception.
Floral: The fragrance characteristic of an existing known flower type.
Fore-Running: The initial fractions of the distillation process.
Fougere: A fragrance combining a dominant sweet note with a mossy, lavender-like citrus character.
Fractionation: The process of distillation of the essential oil into various fractions.
Fruit, Flavour/Essence: Suitably blended mixtures of flavouring materials, permitted chemicals and food colours, in a solvent medium of either ethanol or the permitted nonalcoholic solvents.
Fruity Note: The impression of fruit odours within the fragrance theme.
Full Bodies: A well: roundedout fragrance that possesses depth.
Green Note: Notes that recall fresh cut grass, leaves and vines.
Gum: A natural water soluble anionic material often of glycoside-like structure and of high molecular weight which collects in or exudes from certain plants. It forms a neutral or slightly acid solution or a sol with water and has typical mild odour.
Gum (Aromatic): A substance that collects in or exudes from certain aromatic plants.
Gum Resin: Natural exudation from plants and trees consisting of gums and resin with very small amounts of essential oils.
Gum resin: A natural exudate obtained from a tree or plant. It is comprised of gums and resins. If the gum resin source also contains an essential oil it is called an oleogumresin.
Harmonious: Order, accord and unity in a fragrance.
Heavy: A forceful and intense effect.
Hydrodistillation: Distillation of a substance carried out in direct contact with boiling water.
Infusion: A process of treating a substance with water or organic solvent, with or without heating.
Infusion: A hot extract of either a plant part of its exudate with either water or an organic solvent.
Isolate: Either a single constituent or a multicomponent fraction or a composite fraction, rich in desired odoriferous components and derived from a natural perfumery material.
Lasting Qualities: The ability of a fragrance to retain its character over a given period of time.
Leathery Note: Any fragrance conveying the dominant characteristic of tanned leather.
Materials Perfumery, Natural: Perfumery materials of natural origin.
Melting Point: The temperature at which the material melts and becomes liquid throughout as shown by the formation of a definite meniscus.
Melting Range: The main overall odour effect experienced by olfactory nerves on smelling a strip impregnated with a material and exposed to the atmosphere for some time.
Mossy Note: It is a light musk lavender odour.
Natural perfumery Materials: Perfumery materials of natural origin.
Odour: That property of a substance which stimulates and is perceived by the olfactory sense.
Oil, Absolute: Refers to the steam volatile part of an absolute.
Oleogum Resin: Exudations from tree trunks or barks of trees and are characterised by the fact that these consist of entirely or mainly essential oil and resin.
Oleoresin: The natural tree trunk or bark exudate which is extremely rich in an essential oil.
Oriental Blend: A blend with heavy, full-bodied note.
Perfume: A suitably blended composition of various materials of synthetic and/or natural origin to give a desired odour effect. It is carried in a suitable medium to the extent of not more than 20 percent.
Perfume Concentrate: A nonalcoholic concentrated perfume blend.
Perfumery Compound: A concentrated base which is further diluted with or without toning and further modifications to suit various end uses.
Perfumery Grade Alcohol: Rectified ethyl alcohol free from by-odours used in the manufacture of a alcoholic extracts and perfumes.
Perfumery Material: A naturally occurring substance or a derived material or a preparation obtained by physical and/or chemical means, which diffuses or imparts an odour or a flavour.
Perfumery Materials, Symthetic: Man made perfumery materials by chemical processes.
Plant, Aromatic: Plant bearing a characteristic aroma.
Pomade: Refined and deodourised animal fat (s) saturated with volatile oils present in and exhaled from the flowers especially tuberose and jasmine.
Pommade: The product of the enfleurage fat extraction of fresh flowers.
Rectification: Method of separation of undesirable substance to improve the quality of the material.
Residual Note (Dry Out Note): An odour effect experienced by olfactorynerves on smelling a strip impregnated with a material and exposed to the atmosphere for a period of time when the top and middle notes have disappeared.
Resin: Solid or semisolid translucent exudation from trees or plants.
Resinoid: A semifluid or a solid material obtained from a single resinous source of vegetable or animal origin by extraction with a suitable solvent and is free from solvent used in the process.
Saponification Value: It is numerically equivalent to the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids and the acids liberated by the hydrolysis of the esters present in 1 g of the material. It represents the sum of acid value and ester value.
Saponification Value After Acetylation: It is numerically equivalent to the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acids and the acids liberated by the hydrolysis of the esters present in 1g of the acetylated product.
Sesquiterpene: Terms denoting a hydrocarbon composed of one and a half terpene units, a single terpene unit being equal to two isoprene units.
Sesquiterpeneless Oil: An isolate obtained by suitably removing the sesquiterpenes (C15H24) from an essential oil.
Spice/Herb oleoresin: A solvent extract of dried spice or herb which is virtually free from the extracting solvent. It is used exclusively by the food and pharmaceutical industries as a replacement of ground spices and spice tinctures.
Spicy Blend: Any fragrance combination having carnation characteristics.
Steam Distillation: Distillation of a substance by bubbling steam through it.
Synthetic Perfumery Materials: Man made perfumery materials by chemical processes.
Tail Running: The last fraction in a distillation process.
Terpeneless Oil: An isolate obtained by removing almost all monoterpenes (C10H16) from an essential oil.
Thin: The lack of body and richness.
Tincture: A cold alcoholic extract of natural fragrant material of vegetable or animal origin, the solvent being left in the extract as a diluent.
Tissue: Plant structure composed of cells.
Toilet Water: It is the strongest realization of a particular fragrance in aqueous alcohol.
Top Note: The first odour effect experienced by olfactory nerves on smelling a strip freshly impregnated with a material.
Vacuum Distillation: Distillation of a substance under reduced pressure.
Volatile: A material is said to be volatile when it has the property of evaporating at room temperature when exposed to atmosphere.
Water Distillation: Distillation of a substance carried out in direct contact with boiling water.
Woody Blend: Any fragrance dominated by a woody character.
Woody Note: The impression of wood or woody odours within the fragrance theme.
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